Additional Reading

During the 2013 course, I mentioned these articles or suggested them as reading based on questions from the delegates. They are useful articles related to turfgrass maintenance.

At golf courses in India, much can be learned about how to improve turf conditions by doing simple trials at the golf course. PACE Turf have produced this guide explaining how to conduct tests that will lead to improved golf course turf -- Testing products and practices: a guide for golf course superintendents.

A method for removing contaminating and unwanted grasses from putting green edges by Todd Lowe.

Monitoring and measuring sustainability on the golf course by Gelernter et al.

A complete guide from John Pryor at Hydrogold explaining distribution uniformity of irrigation systems.

Computer models show how water moves in greens, and where the water is held, by Ed and Kevin McCoy.

Coring and topdressing of putting greens in the 21st century by O'Brien and Hartwiger.

Changing times in bermudagrass putting green management giving some advice on how greens are currently being managed, by Todd Lowe.

For turfgrass disease control, and advice about use of fungicides, read Vincelli and Munshaw's guide to the chemical control of turfgrass diseases.

When applying fungicides, it is important to choose the right spray nozzles. Read about that important topic in this article by Vincelli and Dixon.

Take-all patch disease of creeping bentgrass can be reduced by application of manganese fertilizer. This article by Heckman et al. provides details.

This article about overseeding and turfgrass growth potential by Stowell and Gelernter explains how grass growth is expected to change based on temperature throughout the year.

The R&A's Holing Out Test is a simple and quick test for measuring putting green reliability.


In the 2011 and 2012 courses, the articles below were given as suggested reading on topics related to golf course construction and maintenance.

Irrigation water quality: The most important parameters that should be known about an irrigation water are its salinity (which can affect plant growth) and its sodium adsorption ratio (which can affect soil structure). A useful reference guide to irrigation water testing is Interpreting Turfgrass Irrigation Water Test Results by Ali Harivandi.

Fairway sandcapping and organic matter accumulation: Once a sand rootzone is established, extensive work must be done on a regular basis to manage the organic matter content that accumulates at the surface. This article (Do Fairways Need a Sandcap?) explains why Micah Woods prefers to grow grass in soil rather than in sand.

Putting green construction and sand particle size: The standard reference for putting green construction and the sand particle sizes that are recommended for construction or topdressing of sand-based putting greens is this document from the United States Golf Association: Recommendations for a Method of Putting Green Construction.

Course maintenance standards: There should be maintenance standards that define what type of playing conditions will be produced on a golf course. The standards are different for every golf course. Every golf course will have its own standards for playability of the different areas of the golf course. Todd Lowe from the USGA wrote this guide: Setting Standards. This article gives a general outline of course maintenance standards: Course Maintenance Standards by Micah Woods.

Organic matter management by core aerification and scarification: This research project, conducted at the University of Arkansas and discussed in the programme session on organic matter management, has results that show scarification can remove more organic matter from the surface of sand rootzones than coring: Cultivating to manage organic matter in sand-based putting greens by Landreth et al..